The Indian Space Programme has the primary goal of promoting and
establishing a vibrant space science, applications and technology
programme to assist in the overall development of the nation.
The first Indian satellite, Aryabhata, launched in 1975,
carried scientific experiments to investigate X-ray astronomy,
solar neutrons and supra-thermal electron density. Since then,
several instruments for scientific research have been flown on
board high altitude balloons, sounding rockets and satellites.
Several ground based facilities have also been set up for
conducting research by scientists from universities and research
institutions as part of astrophysical, solar and atmospheric
Technologies developed for
those spacecraft systems, which are readily available now at ISRO,
can be fully exploited for embarking on planetary missions with
well thought out scientific objectives.
Mars Orbiter Mission
Orbiter Mission is ISRO’s first interplanetary mission to planet
Mars with an orbiter craft designed to orbit Mars in an
elliptical orbit. The primary driving technological objective of
the mission is to design and realize a spacecraft with a
capability to perform Earth Bound Manoeuvre (EBM), Martian
Transfer Trajectory (MTT) and Mars Orbit Insertion (MOI) phases
and the related deep space mission planning and communication
management at a distance of nearly 400 million Km. Following are
the payloads developed by SAC and flown.
Methane Sensor for Mars (MSM)
MSM is designed to measure Methane (CH4) in the Martian
atmosphere with PPB accuracy and map its sources. Data is
acquired only over illuminated scene as the sensor measures
reflected solar radiation. Methane concentration in the Martian
atmosphere undergoes spatial and temporal variations. Hence
global data is collected during every orbit.
Mars Color Camera (MCC)
tri-color Mars Color camera gives images & information about the
surface features and composition of Martian surface. They are
useful to monitor the dynamic events and weather of Mars. MCC
will also be used for probing the two satellites of Mars –
Phobos & Deimos. It also provides the context information for
other science payloads.
Thermal Infrared Imaging
TIS measure the thermal emission and
can be operated during both day and night. Temperature and
emissivity are the two basic physical parameters estimated from
thermal emission measurement. Many minerals and soil types have
characteristic spectra in TIR region. TIS can map surface
composition and mineralogy of Mars.
Monitoring of Northern Polar
Ice Cap by Mars Colour Camera onboard Mars Orbiter Mission
Mars Colour Camera (MCC) onboard Mars Orbiter Mission is
in a unique eccentric & elliptical orbit around Mars, which helps
it to image Mars & its Moons differently as compared to other
international missions. The North polar ice cap (NPIC) of Mars
was imaged by MCC between Solar Longitude – (LS) 86.970 to Solar
Longitude (LS) 98.550), during northern summer season on Mars.
Three images were taken by MCC between 26/12/2015 & 22/01/2016
during which the altitude of MOM, from Mars, was varying from
57169 km to 71217 km.
The sublimation of polar ice was in
progress and the changes in the areal extent of polar ice cap
during the said period has been very accurately captured by MCC.
The area of polar ice cap is estimated to have reduced from
381096 sq.km. to 340538 sq. km. (10.5%) in 12 LS (from 86.970 to
98.550) It suggests an approximate rate of 3380 sq. km. per LS
observed during the period of observation. The graph shows
progressive reduction in areal extent of NPIC vis.a.vis the solar
longitudes. The monitoring of Martian Polar Ice Cap by MCC is
well facilitated by multi-temporal images of MCC taken from
apoapsis. Continuation of monitoring of the Ice caps in future
can lead to significant and vital scientific information .
Images from MCC instrument
onboard MOM, depicts views of the northern polar region of Mars
on different Solar longitude.
India's first mission to Moon, was launched successfully on
October 22, 2008 from SDSC SHAR, Sriharikota.
has indigenously developed four core payload/experiments: TMC,
HySI, LLRI and HEX and a Moon Impact Probe (MIP).
- Terrain Mapping stereo Camera (TMC) in the panchromatic
band, having 5 m spatial resolution and 20 km swath
- Hyper Spectral Imaging camera (HySI) operating in
0.4-0.95 m band with a spectral resolution of 15 nm and spatial
resolution of 80 m with a swath of 20 km
- Lunar Laser Ranging Instrument (LLRI) with height
resolution of less than 5 m
- High Energy X-ray spectrometer (HEX) using
Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride (CdZnTe) detector in the 30-270 keV
energy region with spatial resolution of 33 km
- Moon Impact Probe (MIP) as piggyback payload on the main
orbiterof the Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft, which will impact on the
surface of the Moon
- Chandrayaan-1 X-ray Spectrometer (C1XS) through ESA -
collaboration between Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, UK and
ISRO Satellite Centre, ISRO. Part of this payload is redesigned
by ISRO to suit Chandrayaan-1 scientific objectives.
- Near Infra Red spectrometer (SIR-2) from Max Plank
Institute, Lindau, Germany through ESA.
- Sub keV Atom Reflecting Analyser (SARA) through ESA,
collaboration between Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Sweden
and Space Physics Laboratory, Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre,ISRO.
The Data Processing Unit of this payload/ experiment isdesigned
and developed by ISRO, while Swedish Institute of Space Physics
has developed the payload sensor.
- Radiation Dose Monitor Experiment (RADOM) from Bulgarian
Academy of Sciences.
- Miniature Synthetic Aperture Radar (Mini-SAR) from
Applied Physics Laboratory, Johns Hopkins University and Naval
Air Warfare Centre, USA through NASA.
- Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) from Brown University and
Jet Propulsion Laboratory, USA through NASA.
Provided below is the summary of the prime objectives of
the eleven payloads carried onboard Chandrayaan-1 mission.
||HySI, SIR-2, M3
||RADOM, HEX, C1XS
|Magnetic Field Mapping
|Lunar Atmospheric constituent
will be an advanced version of the previous Chandrayaan-1 mission
to Moon.Chandrayaan-2 is configured as a two module system
comprising of an Orbiter Craft module (OC) and a Lander Craft
module (LC) carrying the Rover developed by ISRO.
primary objective of the mission is to expand the technologies
inherited from Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft and ‘Develop &
Demonstrate’ newer technologies for future planetary missions and
to design, realize and deploy a Lunar Lander-Rover capable of soft
landing on a specified lunar site and deploy a Rover to carry out
in-situ analysis of chemicals.
The Orbiter Craft
weighing around 3200 kg would orbit around the moon and perform
the objectives of remote sensing the moon. The orbiter craft
carries payloads like
- Solar X-ray monitor (XSM)
- L and S band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)
- Imaging IR Spectrometer (IIRS)
- Chandra’s Atmospheric Composition Explorer (ChACE-2)
- Terrain Mapping Camera-2 (TMC-2) and Chandrayaan-2 Large
area soft x-ray spectrometer (CLASS)
The Lander Craft with four scientific payloads viz
- MEMS based Seismometer
- Radio Anatomy of Moon Bound Hypersensitive ionosphere
and Atmosphere (RAMBHA)
- Lunar Electrostatic and Dust Levitation Experiment
(LESDLE) and Chandra’s Surface Thermal Experiment (ChaSTE)
It would soft land on the lunar surface at a predetermined
location on the lunar surface.
Rover also carries
two instruments viz LASER Induced Breakdown Spectroscope (LIBS)
and Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APIXS) to carry out in-situ
analysis of chemicals. Spacecraft is being re-configured in view
of the indigenous Lander and Rover.